Paraneoplastic syndromes are associated with a variety of malignant neoplasms and are systemic and non-metastatic manifestations that develop in a minority of cancer patients. This review examines all published cases of paraneoplastic syndromes associated with neuroendocrine carcinomas of the larynx. There are a total of ten patients reported with paraneoplastic syndromes associated with laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinomas in the literature. Of these, nine died and the tenth is alive with liver metastases. There were five cases of small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, four cases of moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma, and one case of well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma associated with paraneoplastic syndromes. As these syndromes have significant clinical relevance, physicians should be aware of the possible presence of paraneoplastic syndromes in the diagnostic process of patients with neuroendocrine carcinoma of the larynx.
Keywords: Diagnosis; Larynx; Neuroendocrine carcinomas; Paraneoplastic syndromes; Prognosis.