Substitution of red meat with legumes in the therapeutic lifestyle change diet based on dietary advice improves cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight type 2 diabetes patients: a cross-over randomized clinical trial

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015 May;69(5):592-7. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2014.228. Epub 2014 Oct 29.


Background/objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of substitution of red meat with legumes in the Therapeutic Lifestyle Change (TLC) diet on cardiometabolic risk factors in type 2 diabetes patients based on dietary education.

Subjects/methods: This study was a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial. Thirty-one participants (24 women and 7 men; age: 58.1 ± 6.0 years) with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to consume a control diet (legume-free TLC diet) and legume-based TLC diet for 8 weeks. Legume-based TLC diet was the same as the control diet, but the legume-based TLC group was advised to replace two servings of red meat with legumes, 3 days per week. After the interventional period, a washout period was conducted for 4 weeks. The groups were then advised to follow the alternate treatment for 8 weeks. Cardiometabolic risk factors were measured.

Results: Compared with the legume-free TLC diet, the legume-based TLC diet significantly decreased fasting blood glucose (P=0.04), fasting insulin (P=0.04), triglyceride concentrations (P=0.04) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.02). Total cholesterol concentrations decreased after consumption of both TLC diet and legume TLC diet; however, the data did not differ significantly between the two diets. body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressures did not change significantly after consumption of either the legume-free TLC diet or the legume-based TLC diet.

Conclusions: Dietary advice given for substitution of red meat with legume intakes within a TLC diet-improved lipid profiles and glycemic control among diabetes patients, which were independent from BMI change. This trial was registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials ( as IRCT201202251640N7.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose / drug effects
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / blood*
  • Cholesterol / blood
  • Cholesterol, LDL / blood
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diet therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology
  • Diet Therapy / methods*
  • Fabaceae*
  • Fasting / blood
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Life Style*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Overweight / diet therapy*
  • Red Meat*
  • Risk Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Triglycerides / blood
  • Waist Circumference / drug effects


  • Blood Glucose
  • Cholesterol, LDL
  • Insulin
  • Triglycerides
  • Cholesterol

Associated data

  • IRCT/IRCT201202251640N7