Maturation of iron-sulphur (Fe/S) proteins involves complex biosynthetic machinery. In vivo synthesis of [2Fe-2S] clusters on the mitochondrial scaffold protein Isu1 requires the cysteine desulphurase complex Nfs1-Isd11, frataxin, ferredoxin Yah1 and its reductase Arh1. The roles of Yah1-Arh1 have remained enigmatic, because they are not required for in vitro Fe/S cluster assembly. Here, we reconstitute [2Fe-2S] cluster synthesis on Isu1 in a reaction depending on Nfs1-Isd11, frataxin, Yah1, Arh1 and NADPH. Unlike in the bacterial system, frataxin is an essential part of Fe/S cluster biosynthesis and is required simultaneously and stoichiometrically to Yah1. Reduced but not oxidized Yah1 tightly interacts with apo-Isu1 indicating a dynamic interaction between Yah1-apo-Isu1. Nuclear magnetic resonance structural studies identify the Yah1-apo-Isu1 interaction surface and suggest a pathway for electron flow from reduced ferredoxin to Isu1. Together, our study defines the molecular function of the ferredoxin Yah1 and its human orthologue FDX2 in mitochondrial Fe/S cluster synthesis.