Anti-infective prophylaxis in pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia

Expert Rev Hematol. 2014 Dec;7(6):819-30. doi: 10.1586/17474086.2014.965140. Epub 2014 Oct 31.


Pediatric patients undergoing treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are at high risk for infectious complications, predominantly due to Gram-negative bacteria, viridans group streptococci and fungal pathogens. In order to prevent infections in these patients, most institutions have implemented a number of non-pharmacological approaches to supportive care. In addition, antibiotic prophylaxis reduces bacterial infection, but may increase the emergence of resistance. Antifungal prophylaxis is generally recommended for children with AML. Whereas the use of hematopoietic growth factors has not resulted in improved survival, the efficacy of prophylactic granulocyte transfusions has to be determined.

Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia; bacteria; child; fungus; granulocyte transfusion; hematopoietic growth factor; infection.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Bacterial Infections / complications
  • Bacterial Infections / prevention & control*
  • Child
  • Hematopoietic Cell Growth Factors / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / complications*
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy
  • Leukocyte Transfusion
  • Mycoses / complications
  • Mycoses / prevention & control*


  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Hematopoietic Cell Growth Factors