Pediatric patients undergoing treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are at high risk for infectious complications, predominantly due to Gram-negative bacteria, viridans group streptococci and fungal pathogens. In order to prevent infections in these patients, most institutions have implemented a number of non-pharmacological approaches to supportive care. In addition, antibiotic prophylaxis reduces bacterial infection, but may increase the emergence of resistance. Antifungal prophylaxis is generally recommended for children with AML. Whereas the use of hematopoietic growth factors has not resulted in improved survival, the efficacy of prophylactic granulocyte transfusions has to be determined.
Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia; bacteria; child; fungus; granulocyte transfusion; hematopoietic growth factor; infection.