Effective induction of melanoma-antigen-specific CD8+ T cells via Vγ9γδT cell expansion by CD56(high+) Interferon-α-induced dendritic cells

Exp Dermatol. 2015 Jan;24(1):35-41. doi: 10.1111/exd.12581. Epub 2014 Dec 8.


Dendritic cells (DCs) can be differentiated from CD14+ monocytes in the presence of interferon-α (IFNα) and granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in vitro and are known as IFN-DCs. Circulating blood CD56+ cells expressing high levels of CD14, HLA-DR and CD86 have been shown to spontaneously differentiate into DC-like cells in vitro after their isolation from blood. We show here that IFN-DCs expressing high levels of CD56 (hereafter, CD56(high+) IFN-DCs) can be differentiated in vitro from monocytes obtained as adherent cells from healthy donors and patients with metastatic melanoma. These cells expressed high levels of CD14, HLA-DR and CD86 and possessed many pseudopodia. These CD56(high+) IFN-DCs may be an in vitro counterpart of the circulating CD56+ CD14+ CD86+ HLA-DR+ cells in blood. Conventional mature DCs differentiated from monocytes as adherent cells in the presence of GM-CSF, IL-4 and TNF-α (hereafter, mIL-4DCs) did not express CD56 or CD14. In contrast to mIL-4DCs, the CD56(high+) IFN-DCs exhibited a stronger capacity to stimulate autologous CD56+ Vγ9γδT cells highly producing IFNγ in the presence of zoledronate and IL-2. The CD56(high+) IFN-DCs possessing HLA-A*0201 effectively induced Mart-1-modified melanoma peptide (A27L)-specific CD8+ T cells through preferential expansion of CD56+ Vγ9γδT cells in the presence of A27L, zoledronate and IL-2. Vaccination with CD56(high+) IFN-DCs copulsed with tumor antigens and zoledronate may orchestrate the induction of various CD56+ immune cells possessing high effector functions, resulting in strong immunological responses against tumor cells. This study may be relevant to the design of future clinical trials of CD56(high+) IFN-DCs-based immunotherapies for patients with melanoma.

Keywords: IFN α; Vγ9γδT; immunotherapy; melanoma-antigen-specific CD8+ T; zoledronate.

MeSH terms

  • CD56 Antigen / metabolism*
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / cytology*
  • Dendritic Cells / metabolism*
  • Diphosphonates / chemistry
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / metabolism
  • HLA-A2 Antigen / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Imidazoles / chemistry
  • Immunotherapy
  • Interferon-alpha / metabolism*
  • Interleukin-2 / metabolism
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / cytology
  • Lipopolysaccharide Receptors / metabolism
  • Lymphocytes / cytology
  • Melanoma / immunology
  • Melanoma / metabolism*
  • Melanoma / therapy
  • Monocytes / cytology
  • Peptides / metabolism
  • Phenotype
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta / immunology*
  • Skin Neoplasms / immunology
  • Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • Zoledronic Acid


  • CD56 Antigen
  • Diphosphonates
  • HLA-A*02:01 antigen
  • HLA-A2 Antigen
  • Imidazoles
  • Interferon-alpha
  • Interleukin-2
  • Lipopolysaccharide Receptors
  • Peptides
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta
  • T-cell receptor Vgamma9, human
  • Zoledronic Acid
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor