We evaluated in vivo innate immune responses in monocyte populations from 67 young (aged 21-30 years) and older (aged ≥65 years) adults before and after influenza vaccination. CD14(+)CD16(+) inflammatory monocytes were induced after vaccination in both young and older adults. In classical CD14(+)CD16(-) and inflammatory monocytes, production of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6, as measured by intracellular staining, was strongly induced after vaccination. Cytokine production was strongly associated with influenza vaccine antibody response; the highest levels were found as late as day 28 after vaccination in young subjects and were substantially diminished in older subjects. Notably, levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10) were markedly elevated in monocytes from older subjects before and after vaccination. In purified monocytes, we found age-associated elevation in phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3, and decreased serine 359 phosphorylation of the negative IL-10 regulator dual-specificity phosphatase 1. These findings for the first time implicate dysregulated IL-10 production in impaired vaccine responses in older adults.
Keywords: aging; cytokine; influenza vaccine; innate immunity; monocyte.
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