MALAT1 long non-coding RNA is overexpressed in multiple myeloma and may serve as a marker to predict disease progression

BMC Cancer. 2014 Nov 4;14:809. doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-14-809.


Background: The pathogenesis of multiple myeloma involves complex genetic and epigenetic events. This study aimed to investigate the role and clinical relevance of the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) in multiple myeloma.

Methods: Bone marrow mononuclear cells were collected for analysis. The samples of multiple myeloma were taken from 45 patients at diagnosis, 61 post-treatment, and 18 who relapsed or had progression. Control samples were collected from 20 healthy individuals. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions were performed to evaluate the expression of MALAT1. The clinical relevance of MALAT1 expression was also explored.

Results: MALAT1 was overexpressed in the newly diagnosed patients compared with post-treatment patients (mean ∆CT: -5.54 ± 0.16 vs. -3.84 ± 0.09, 3.25-fold change; p < 0.001) and healthy individuals (mean ∆CT: -5.54 ± 0.16 vs. -3.95 ± 0.21, 3.01-fold change; p < 0.001). The expression of MALAT1 strongly correlated with disease status, and the magnitude of change in MALAT1 post-treatment had prognostic relevance. The patients with early progression had a significantly smaller change in MALAT1 after treatment (mean ∆CT change: 1.26 ± 1.06 vs. 2.09 ± 0.79, p = 0.011). A cut-off value of the change in MALAT1 (∆CT change: 1.5) was obtained, and the patients with a greater decrease in MALAT1 (difference in ∆CT >1.5) had significantly longer progression-free survival compared with the patients with a smaller MALAT1 change (24 months vs. 11 months; p = 0.001). For the post-treatment patients, the risk of early progression could be predicted using this cut-off value.

Conclusions: MALAT1 was overexpressed in patients with myeloma and may play a role in its pathogenesis. In addition, MALAT1 may serve as a molecular predictor of early progression.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics*
  • Bone Marrow
  • Disease Progression*
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Female
  • Gene Expression
  • Humans
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis
  • Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy
  • Multiple Myeloma / genetics*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • RNA, Long Noncoding / genetics*
  • ROC Curve
  • Survival Rate
  • Time Factors


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • MALAT1 long non-coding RNA, human
  • RNA, Long Noncoding