Bioactive compounds and encapsulation of Yanang (Tiliacora triandra) leaves

Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2014 Apr 3;11(3):76-84. doi: 10.4314/ajtcam.v11i3.11. eCollection 2014.


Background: Yanang (Tiliacora triandra) has been known as vegetable and herbal in northeast Thailand and Lao People's Democratic Republic. Extracts from Yanang leaves contain high amounts of polyphenol constituents possessing antioxidant activity.

Materials and methods: This work investigated bioactive compounds of Yanang extracts prepared by infusion with water, ethanol and acetone. Furthermore, this paper reports the design of the experimental method for optimization of Yanang encapsulation using three independent variables: the ratio of core material (Yanang), to wall material (gum Arabic), gum Arabic concentration and inlet temperature of spray drying on bioactive compounds stability. The stability of bioactive compounds was evaluated using phenolic compounds, total antioxidant, carotenoids and chlorophyll.

Results: The study of the bioactivity of Yanang extracts found that extraction with water was the appropriate application. The study of Yanang encapsulation demonstrated that gum Arabic, as coating agents, protected bioactive compounds of Yanang. Optimized condition for the encapsulation was at the ratio of core to wall {1:4}, in gum Arabic concentration 10% (w/v), and inlet temperature at 160▯C. The results show that the bioactive compounds were mainly affected by the ratio of core to wall material. Besides, moisture content and particle size of encapsulation depend on inlet temperature of spray drying, and gum Arabic concentration, respectively. This optimization reveals that the encapsulation process did not lose the bioactive compounds.

Conclusion: Yanang extract with water was the main phenolic compound and showed high antioxidant activities. This study demonstrates the potentials of using spray drying process and optimization for the encapsulation of herbal products.

Keywords: Encapsulation; Spray drying; Tiliacora triandra; Yanang; bioactive compounds.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / chemistry
  • Drug Compounding / methods*
  • Gum Arabic / chemistry
  • Menispermaceae / chemistry*
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Particle Size
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry*
  • Plant Leaves / chemistry
  • Temperature


  • Antioxidants
  • Plant Extracts
  • Gum Arabic