Relationship between cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine glucuronidation and the nicotine metabolite ratio in Caucasian smokers

Biomarkers. 2014 Dec;19(8):679-83. doi: 10.3109/1354750X.2014.966254. Epub 2014 Nov 6.


Context: Nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) is linked with smoking behaviour and quitting, but little is known about the importance of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase metabolism phenotype on NMR.

Objective: To investigate the relationship between NMR and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase phenotype in a Caucasian population.

Methods: Urine samples from 260 smokers were measured by UPLC-MS/MS for cotinine (COT), 3'-hydroxycotinine, COT-glucuronide and 3'-hydroxycotinine-glucuronide. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase phenotype was assessed using the proportion of metabolites present as the glucuronide.

Results: A correlation was found between NMR and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase phenotype for COT (males and females) and 3'-HC in females (p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: NMR is clearly influenced by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase phenotype for COT in Caucasians.

Keywords: Genotype; nicotine metabolite ratio; smoking cessation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chromatography, Liquid
  • Cotinine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Cotinine / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Glucuronides / metabolism*
  • Glucuronosyltransferase / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Nicotine / metabolism*
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry
  • White People*


  • Glucuronides
  • hydroxycotinine
  • Nicotine
  • Glucuronosyltransferase
  • Cotinine