Extrusion of calcium from rod outer segments is driven by both sodium and potassium gradients

Nature. 1989 Feb 23;337(6209):740-3. doi: 10.1038/337740a0.


Calcium is transported across the surface membrane of both nerve and muscle by a Na+-dependent mechanism, usually termed the Na:Ca exchange. It is well established from experiments on rod outer segments that one net positive charge enters the cell for every Ca2+ ion extruded by the exchange, which is generally interpreted to imply an exchange stoichiometry of 3 Na+:1 Ca2+. We have measured the currents associated with the operation of the exchange in both forward and reversed modes in isolated rod outer segments and we find that the reversed mode, in which Ca2+ enters the cell in exchange for Na+, depends strongly on the presence of external K+. The ability of changes in external K+ concentration ([K+]o) to perturb the equilibrium level of [Ca2+]i indicates that K+ is co-transported with calcium. From an examination of the relative changes of [Ca2+]o, [Na+]o, [K+]o and membrane potential required to maintain the exchange at equilibrium, we conclude that the exchange stoichiometry is 4 Na+:1 Ca2+, 1 K+ and we propose that the exchange should be renamed the Na:Ca, K exchange. Harnessing the outward K+ gradient should allow the exchange to maintain a Ca2+ efflux down to levels of internal [Ca2+] that are considerably lower than would be possible with a 3 Na+:1 Ca2+ exchange.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Ambystoma
  • Animals
  • Calcium / metabolism*
  • Kinetics
  • Membrane Potentials
  • Photoreceptor Cells / analysis*
  • Potassium Channels / metabolism*
  • Rod Cell Outer Segment / analysis*
  • Sodium Channels / metabolism*


  • Potassium Channels
  • Sodium Channels
  • Calcium