Variant of X-Linked Chronic Granulomatous Disease Revealed by a Severe Burkholderia cepacia Invasive Infection in an Infant

Case Reports Immunol. 2013;2013:323614. doi: 10.1155/2013/323614. Epub 2013 Jul 21.

Abstract

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by increased susceptibility to bacteria and fungi since early in life, caused by mutations in any of the five genes coding for protein subunits in NADPH oxidase. X-linked variant CGD can be missed during routine evaluation or present later in life due to hypomorphic mutations and a residual superoxide production. The case of a 10-month-old boy who died of pneumonia is reported. The isolation of Burkholderia cepacia from his lung, together with a marginally low nitroblue tetrazolium reduction assay (NBT), made us suspect and pursue the molecular diagnosis of CGD. A postmortem genetic analysis finally demonstrated CGD caused by a hypomorphic missense mutation with normal gp91 (phox) expression. In a patient being investigated for unusually severe or recurrent infection, a high index of suspicion of immunodeficiency must be maintained.