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Review
, 37 (12), 851-6

Lessons From Yeast on Emerging Roles of the ATAD2 Protein Family in Gene Regulation and Genome Organization

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Review

Lessons From Yeast on Emerging Roles of the ATAD2 Protein Family in Gene Regulation and Genome Organization

Matteo Cattaneo et al. Mol Cells.

Abstract

ATAD2, a remarkably conserved, yet poorly characterized factor is found upregulated and associated with poor prognosis in a variety of independent cancers in human. Studies conducted on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATAD2 homologue, Yta7, are now indicating that the members of this family may primarily be regulators of chromatin dynamics and that their action on gene expression could only be one facet of their general activity. In this review, we present an overview of the literature on Yta7 and discuss the possibility of translating these findings into other organisms to further define the involvement of ATAD2 and other members of its family in regulating chromatin structure and function both in normal and pathological situations.

Keywords: AAA ATPase; ATAD2; chromatin; histone chaperone; transcription; yeast.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Members of the ATAD2 protein family are conserved from yeast to human. (A). Left part of the panel is a graphical representation of a phylogenetic tree performed with TreeDyn (v198.3) (Dereeper et al., 2008; 2010) from the amino acid sequences of ATAD2-like proteins (UniProt, 2014) aligned by CLUSTALO (McWilliam et al., 2013). Scale bar: 0.2 changes per site. Right part of the panel shows a multiple sequence alignment performed using PSI-coffee (Di Tommaso et al., 2011; Kemena and Notredame, 2009). (B) Schematic representation of human ATAD2 and S. cerevisiae Yta7 drawn to scale. The percentages of identity are indicated both for the overall length of the two proteins (on the right side of the panel) and for each conserved domain (Alignment done with CLUSTALO). ANR, Acid N-terminal Region; ATP1 and ATP2, AAA+ ATPase domain 1 and 2; BRD, BRomoDomain; 2BD, ATAD2B specific Domain; CD, C-terminal Domain.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Yta7 is a probable histone chaperone, regulating the transcription of histone and other inducible genes and acting as a barrier element. (A) Yta7 is directly involved in regulating S-phase specific transcription of the HTA1 histone gene. After the binding of RNA polymerase II, the phosphorylation and removal of Yta7 allows an efficient transcriptional elongation along HTA1. The S-phase specific removal of RSC and the recruitment of SWI/SNF by Rtt106 to the histone genes accompany Yta7 departure and HTA1 transcriptional activation. (B) Yta7 is required for the transcription of inducible genes. Yta7 binds to the promoter region of these genes and is believed to promote the eviction or degradation of the histones. (C) Yta7 is a boundary element acting both at the promoter of histone genes (left) and at the border between heterochromatin and euchromatin (right).

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