The purpose of this study was to evaluate short-term complications associated with the tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) procedure in dogs of small and medium sizes. These study findings could then be compared with similar studies in dogs of all sizes. Ninety-eight procedures (82 dogs) using 2 or 2.7 mm TPLO plates were included spanning a 6 yr period with a minimum of an 8 wk follow-up period. The overall complication rate was 36%. Complications were grouped into three categories: intraoperative (2%), those occurring up to 2 wk postoperatively (11%), and those occurring >2 wk postoperatively (30%). Radiographic evidence of delayed healing of the TPLO osteotomy site was the most common complication in the dogs (9%), none of which had clinical signs attributed to delayed healing. Other common complications included patellar tendon thickening (8%) and tibial tuberosity fracture (6%). Seven percent of the complications were considered major (requiring additional surgical intervention). Fifty-two percent of complications did not require treatment. Short-term complications should not dissuade an experienced surgeon from performing the TPLO procedure in small- and medium-sized dogs.