Population pharmacokinetic model of ibrutinib, a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with B cell malignancies

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2015 Jan;75(1):111-21. doi: 10.1007/s00280-014-2617-3. Epub 2014 Nov 8.


Purpose: Ibrutinib is an oral Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor, recently approved for the treatment of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients with at least one prior therapy. We developed a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for ibrutinib in patients.

Methods: Ibrutinib PK data (3,477 observations/245 patients) were available from the following clinical studies: (1) A phase I dose-escalation study in recurrent B cell malignancies (dose levels of 1.25-12.5 mg/kg/day and fixed dose of 560 mg/day); (2) a phase II study in MCL (fixed dose level of 560 mg/day); (3) a phase Ib/II dose-finding study in CLL (fixed dose levels of 420 and 840 mg/day). Different compartmental PK models were explored using nonlinear mixed effects modeling.

Results: A two-compartment PK model with sequential zero-first-order absorption and first-order elimination was able to characterize the PK of ibrutinib. The compound was rapidly absorbed, had a high oral plasma clearance (approximately 1,000 L/h) and a high apparent volume of distribution at steady state (approximately 10,000 L). PK parameters were not dependent on dose, study, or clinical indication. The fasting state was characterized by a 67 % relative bioavailability compared with the meal conditions used in the trials and administration after a high-fat meal. Body weight and coadministration of antacids marginally increased volume of distribution and duration of absorption, respectively.

Conclusions: The proposed population PK model was able to describe the plasma concentration-time profiles of ibrutinib across various trials. The linear model indicated that the compound's PK was dose independent and time independent.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00849654 NCT01105247 NCT01236391.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Clinical Trial, Phase I
  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenine / analogs & derivatives
  • Adult
  • Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Antineoplastic Agents / blood
  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics*
  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Biological Availability
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Female
  • Food-Drug Interactions
  • Half-Life
  • Humans
  • Intestinal Absorption
  • Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / blood
  • Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy*
  • Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / metabolism
  • Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / blood
  • Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / drug therapy*
  • Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / metabolism
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Biological*
  • Piperidines
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors / administration & dosage
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors / blood
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacokinetics*
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Pyrazoles / administration & dosage
  • Pyrazoles / blood
  • Pyrazoles / pharmacokinetics*
  • Pyrazoles / therapeutic use
  • Pyrimidines / administration & dosage
  • Pyrimidines / blood
  • Pyrimidines / pharmacokinetics*
  • Pyrimidines / therapeutic use


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Piperidines
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • Pyrazoles
  • Pyrimidines
  • ibrutinib
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase
  • Adenine

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00849654
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT01105247
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT01236391