Metabolic regulation during early frog development: glycogenic flux in Xenopus oocytes, eggs, and embryos

Dev Biol. 1989 Apr;132(2):512-23. doi: 10.1016/0012-1606(89)90246-7.


32P-labeled glucose 6-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate were injected into oocytes, fertilized eggs, and early embryos of Xenopus laevis, and the 32P label was followed into glycolytic enzymes and acid-soluble metabolites. The kinetics of labeling of phosphoglucomutase and phosphoglyceromutase and the formation of specific metabolites were used to measure carbon flux through glycolytic intermediates in these cells. In full-grown stage VI oocytes, fertilized eggs, and cells of cleaving embryos, carbon metabolism is in the glycogenic direction. Glycolytic intermediates injected into these cells were metabolized into UDP-glucose and then presumably into glycogen. Carbon flow between phosphoenolpyruvate and glucose 6-phosphate does not utilize fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase; rather, it may depend largely on enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway. Maturation and fertilization of the oocyte did not result in a change in the qualitative pattern of metabolites formed. Pyruvate kinase, although abundant in oocytes and embryos, is essentially inactive in these cells. Pyruvate kinase also appears to be inactive in small previtellogenic stage II oocytes; however, in these cells injected glycolytic intermediates were not metabolized to UDP-glucose.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Carbon / metabolism
  • Chromatography, Paper
  • Glucose-6-Phosphate
  • Glucosephosphates / metabolism
  • Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases / metabolism
  • Glycogen / metabolism*
  • Glycolysis / drug effects
  • Iodoacetamide / pharmacology
  • Iodoacetates / pharmacology
  • Iodoacetic Acid
  • Kinetics
  • Oocytes / metabolism*
  • Phosphoenolpyruvate / metabolism
  • Phosphoglucomutase / metabolism
  • Phosphoglycerate Mutase / metabolism
  • Phosphorus Radioisotopes
  • Pyruvate Kinase / metabolism
  • Uridine Diphosphate Glucose / metabolism
  • Xenopus laevis / embryology*
  • Xenopus laevis / metabolism
  • Zygote / metabolism*


  • Glucosephosphates
  • Iodoacetates
  • Phosphorus Radioisotopes
  • Glucose-6-Phosphate
  • Phosphoenolpyruvate
  • Carbon
  • Glycogen
  • Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases
  • Pyruvate Kinase
  • Phosphoglycerate Mutase
  • Phosphoglucomutase
  • Uridine Diphosphate Glucose
  • Iodoacetic Acid
  • Iodoacetamide