Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and arachidonic acid-derived cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenase metabolites have diverse biological effects, including anti-inflammatory properties in the vasculature. Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation in type 2 diabetes is a key component in the development of insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated whether CYP epoxygenase expression and exogenous EETs can attenuate insulin resistance in diabetic db/db mice and in cultured hepatic cells (HepG2). In vivo, CYP2J2 expression and the accompanying increase in EETs attenuated insulin resistance, as determined by plasma glucose levels, glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp studies. CYP2J2 expression reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines in liver, including CRP, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα, and decreased the infiltration of macrophages in liver. CYP2J2 expression also decreased activation of proinflammatory signaling cascades by decreasing NF-κB and MAPK activation in hepatocytes. Interestingly, CYP2J2 expression and exogenous EET treatment increased glucose uptake and activated the insulin-signaling cascade both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that CYP2J2 metabolites play a role in glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, CYP2J2 expression upregulated PPARγ, which has been shown to induce adipogenesis, which attenuates dyslipidemias observed in diabetes. All of the findings suggest that CYP2J2 expression attenuates the diabetic phenotype and insulin resistance via inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways and activation of PPARγ.
Keywords: cytochrome P450 epoxygenase 2J2; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ.