Cardiovascular diseases: oxidative damage and antioxidant protection

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2014 Oct;18(20):3091-6.


Atherosclerosis, the hardening of arteries under oxidative stress is related to oxidative changes of low density lipoproteins (LDL). The antioxidants prevent the formation of oxidized LDL during atherogenesis. Perhaps more than one mechanism is involved in the atherosclerosis disease where LDL is oxidized in all the cells of arterial wall during the development of this disease. The oxidation of LDL produces lipid peroxidation products such as isoprostans from arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, oxysterols from cholesterol, hydroxyl fatty acids, lipid peroxides and aldehydes. The lipid peroxidation bioassay can serve as a marker for the risk of cardiovascular. An in vivo test of levels of oxidative lipid damage is an early prediction of development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Serum paraoxonase (PON) activity is correlated to severity of the coronary artery disease. The antioxidants level in the serum and serum paraoxonase activity provides information for the risk of CVD. The antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase is responsible for dismutation of superoxide, a free radical chain initiator. The subcellular changes in the equilibrium in favor of free radicals can cause increase in the oxidative stress which leads to cardiomyopathy, heart attack or cardiac dysfunction. The oxidative damage and defense of heart disease has been reported where dietary antioxidants protect the free radical damage to DNA, proteins and lipids. The ascorbic acid, vitamin C is an effective antioxidant and high vitamin E intake can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) by inhibition of atherogenic forms of oxidized LDL. The vitamin A and beta-carotene protect lipid peroxidation and provitamin-A activity. It has been recently suggested that the protection of oxidative damage and related CVD is best served by antioxidants found in the fruits and vegetables. The oxidative damage and antioxidant protection of CVD have been described here.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / administration & dosage*
  • Ascorbic Acid / administration & dosage
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / metabolism*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / pathology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Diet
  • Free Radicals / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Free Radicals / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects
  • Lipid Peroxidation / physiology
  • Lipid Peroxides / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Lipid Peroxides / metabolism
  • Lipoproteins, LDL / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Lipoproteins, LDL / metabolism
  • Oxidation-Reduction / drug effects
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Oxidative Stress / physiology
  • Superoxide Dismutase / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism
  • beta Carotene / administration & dosage


  • Antioxidants
  • Free Radicals
  • Lipid Peroxides
  • Lipoproteins, LDL
  • oxidized low density lipoprotein
  • beta Carotene
  • Superoxide Dismutase
  • Ascorbic Acid