Objectives: To retrospectively assess the influence of potential risk factors, primarily smoking and a prior history of periodontitis, on the severity of peri-implantitis in patients referred for treatment of peri-implantitis.
Materials and methods: Among 98 patients referred for treatment of peri-implantitis, 34 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria: one or several implants with peri-implant marginal bone loss ≥2 mm concomitant with bleeding and/or pus on probing. Information about health status, smoking habits, reason for tooth loss, and performed implant treatment were obtained from the patient charts and interviews. Moreover, a detailed extra- and intraoral examination was performed, including intraoral radiographs of all implants. Risk factors were evaluated by a two-way anova at patient level.
Results: Smoking and a prior history of periodontitis were significant risk factors for increased severity of peri-implantitis. Furthermore, the presence of both smoking and a prior history of periodontitis did not further increase the severity of peri-implantitis, as compared to either of these two factors alone. Poor marginal fit of the suprastructure and extensive gingival imitations on implant-supported fixed full prostheses may also be potential risk factors.
Conclusions: The study indicated that smoking and a prior history of periodontitis were important risk factors for increased severity of peri-implantitis, while concomitant presence of these two risk factors did not further increase the severity of peri-implantitis, as compared to either of these two risk factors alone. Therefore, early diagnosis and adequate treatment of peri-implantitis are important in patients with a prior history of periodontitis and in smokers to minimize the risk of advanced peri-implantitis in conjunction with focus on known risk factors, including meticulous infection control before implant treatment and a systematic maintenance care program.
Keywords: dental implants; oral implants; pathology; peri-implantitis; periodontitis; risk factors; smoking habits.
© 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.