The radiologic studies of 38 essentially untreated adults with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) were reviewed to determine the prevalence of radiologic features, to compare the findings in men and in women, and to elucidate the natural history of the disease by comparing the findings in young, intermediate-age, and older patients. Bone-reinforcement lines were common, but no characteristic mineral mass alteration was established. Looser zones were more prevalent in older subjects. Osteoarthritis was common, occurring in the ankles, knees, feet, sacroiliac joints, and wrists. Enthesopathy was infrequent in the younger group but was present in every member of the intermediate and older groups and was often accompanied by extra ossicles. Curvatures of the lower-extremity long bones were common in all age groups. Three new skeletal alterations in XLH were found to be common: flaring of the iliac wings, trapezoidal distal femoral condyles, and alterations in talar morphology, including shortening of the talar neck and flattening of the talar dome. Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate scintigrams of 17 subjects were often abnormal, depicting bowing deformity and focal tracer accumulation in diaphyseal cortices and in periarticular and extraarticular regions. The mean metabolic index was moderately elevated (4.0). Both radiographic and scintigraphic findings were more severe in men, consistent with hemizygosity. The natural history of untreated XLH in both sexes is characterized by the development of a variety of age-related skeletal abnormalities during adulthood.