Metagenomic approaches to disclose disease-associated pathogens: detection of viral pathogens in honeybees

Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1247:491-511. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-2004-4_33.


Metagenomic approaches have become invaluable for culture-independent and sequence-independent detection and characterization of disease-associated pathogens. Here, the sequential steps from sampling to verification of results are described for a metagenomic-based approach to detect potential pathogens in honeybees. The pre-sequencing steps are given in detail, but due to the rapid development of sequencing technologies, all platform-specific procedures, as well as subsequent bioinformatics analysis, are more generally described. It should also be noted that this approach could, with minor modifications, be adapted for other organisms and sample matrices.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animal Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Animal Diseases / virology*
  • Animals
  • Bees / virology*
  • Computational Biology / methods
  • Gene Library
  • Metagenomics / methods*
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Viruses / classification
  • Viruses / genetics*