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Review
, 20 (42), 15664-73

Wireless Capsule Endoscopy: Perspectives Beyond Gastrointestinal Bleeding

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Review

Wireless Capsule Endoscopy: Perspectives Beyond Gastrointestinal Bleeding

Eduardo Redondo-Cerezo et al. World J Gastroenterol.

Abstract

Wireless capsule endoscopy (CE) is a technology developed for the endoscopic exploration of the small bowel. The first capsule model was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2001, and its first and essential indication was occult gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Over subsequent years, this technology has been refined to provide superior resolution, increased battery life, and capabilities to view different parts of the GI tract. Indeed, cases for which CE proved useful have increased significantly over the last few years, with new indications for the small bowel and technical improvements that have expanded its use to other parts of the GI tract, including the esophagus and colon. The main challenges in the development of CE are new devices with the ability to provide therapy, air inflation for a better vision of the small bowel, biopsy sampling systems attached to the capsule and the possibility to guide and move the capsule with an external motion control. In this article we review the current and new indications of CE, and the evolving technological changes shaping this technology, which has a promising potential in the coming future of gastroenterology.

Keywords: Colon capsule endoscopy; Esophageal capsule endoscopy; Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding; Small bowel tumors; Wireless capsule endoscopy.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Active bleeding and angiodysplasias in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. A: Active bleeding; B and C: Angiodysplasias in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Ulcers in the small bowel. A: Ulcer with erythematous and edematous edges; B: Serpiginous ulceration and stenosis affecting the entire colon circumference.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Tumors in the small bowel. A: Dark tumor (arrows) confirming metastases from melanoma after surgery; B: Subepithelial white lesion compatible with lipoma.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Enlarged gastric areas in a patient with Peutz Jeghers syndrome.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Small bowel lymphangiectasia.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Erythematous lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract. A: Erythematous esophageal lesions in a patient with gastrointestinal amyloidosis; B: Gastric lesions in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Portal hypertension related gastropathy in a cirrhotic patient.

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