Divergent behaviors and underlying mechanisms of cell migration and invasion in non-metastatic T24 and its metastatic derivative T24T bladder cancer cell lines

Oncotarget. 2015 Jan 1;6(1):522-36. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.2680.


Previous studies on cancer cell invasion were primarily focused on its migration because these two events were often considered biologically equivalent. Here we found that T24T cells exhibited higher invasion but lower migration abilities than T24 cells. Expression of Rho-GDPases was much lower and expression of SOD2 was much higher in T24T cells than those in T24 cells. Indeed, knockdown of SOD2 in T24T cells can reverse the cell migration but without affecting cell invasion. We also found that SOD2 inhibited the JNK/c-Jun cascade, and the inhibition of c-Jun activation by ectopic expression of TAM67 impaired Rho-GDPases expression and cell migration in T24T shSOD2 cells. Further, we found that Sp1 can upregulate SOD2 transcription in T24T cells. Importantly, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) was overexpressed in T24T and participated in increasing its invasion, and MMP-2 overexpression was mediated by increasing nuclear transport of nucleolin, which enhanced mmp-2 mRNA stability. Taken together, our study unravels an inverse relationship between cell migration and invasion in human bladder cancer T24T cells and suggests a novel mechanism underlying the divergent roles of SOD2 and MMP-2 in regulating metastatic behaviors of human bladder T24T in cell migration and invasion.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Blotting, Western
  • Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology*
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Movement / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism
  • Transfection
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology*


  • Superoxide Dismutase
  • superoxide dismutase 2
  • MMP2 protein, human
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 2