Visualizing mammalian brain area interactions by dual-axis two-photon calcium imaging

Nat Neurosci. 2014 Dec;17(12):1825-9. doi: 10.1038/nn.3867. Epub 2014 Nov 17.


Fluorescence Ca(2+) imaging enables large-scale recordings of neural activity, but collective dynamics across mammalian brain regions are generally inaccessible within single fields of view. Here we introduce a two-photon microscope possessing two articulated arms that can simultaneously image two brain areas (∼0.38 mm(2) each), either nearby or distal, using microendoscopes. Concurrent Ca(2+) imaging of ∼100-300 neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) and lateromedial (LM) visual area in behaving mice revealed that the variability in LM neurons' visual responses was strongly dependent on that in V1, suggesting that fluctuations in sensory responses propagate through extended cortical networks.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Action Potentials / physiology*
  • Animals
  • Calcium / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, 129 Strain
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton / methods*
  • Photic Stimulation / methods*
  • Visual Cortex / chemistry
  • Visual Cortex / physiology*
  • Visual Pathways / chemistry
  • Visual Pathways / physiology


  • Calcium