Low-income mothers and infants discharged at 24 to 47 hours after birth were compared to two control groups: early discharge with infant separation and conventional discharge. No differences among the three groups in maternal or infant morbidity at seven to 15 days postdelivery were recorded. Simultaneous early discharge was associated with higher maternal attachment scores, fewer maternal concerns, and greater maternal satisfaction with discharge type than early discharge with infant separation. All three groups had substantial morbidity in the first two weeks of life. A shorter hospital stay and more health monitoring postdischarge may be a better use of health resources than a conventional hospital stay for low-income mothers and their infants.