Penile cancer is a rare disease, accounting for ~1% of all malignancies in men. Poor awareness of the condition among the public and clinicians often causes long delays in diagnosis and treatment, which may result in the development of advanced disease that might require extensive and emasculating surgery. In the UK, the development of supraregional penile cancer centres has pooled resources and expertise, which has led to considerable improvements in our understanding and management of this rare condition over the past decade. However, significant gaps in our knowledge still exist. Several areas of diagnosis and management remain areas of controversy, ranging from preventive strategies and treatment of premalignant disease to the assessment of lymph node involvement and the management of advanced disease.