Localized high-resolution proton NMR spectroscopy using stimulated echoes: initial applications to human brain in vivo

Magn Reson Med. 1989 Jan;9(1):79-93. doi: 10.1002/mrm.1910090110.


Water-suppressed localized proton NMR spectroscopy using stimulated echoes has been successfully applied to detect metabolites in the human brain in vivo. The STEAM spectroscopy sequence allows single-step localization by exciting three intersecting slices. Water suppression is achieved by preceding chemical-shift-selective (CHESS) rf pulses. High-resolution (0.05 ppm) proton NMR spectra of healthy volunteers have been High-resolution (0.05 ppm) proton NMR spectra of healthy volunteers have been obtained on a conventional 1.5-T whole-body MRI system (Siemens Magnetom). Volumes-of-interest (VOI) of 64 ml (4 x 4 x 4 cm3) were localized in the occipital area of the brain and spectra were recorded within measuring times ranging from 1 s (single scan) to about 10 min. The experimental procedure is described in detail. Resonance assignments include acetate, N-acetyl aspartate, gamma-amino butyrate, glutamine, glutamate, aspartate, creatine and phosphocreatine, choline-containing compounds, taurine, and inositols. Cerebral lactate was found to be at a maximum concentration of 0.5 mM when assuming N-acetyl aspartate in white matter to be 6 mM.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenine Nucleotides / metabolism
  • Amino Acids / metabolism
  • Brain / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Lactates / metabolism
  • Lipid Metabolism
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy* / instrumentation
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy* / methods
  • Magnetics
  • Protons
  • Water


  • Adenine Nucleotides
  • Amino Acids
  • Lactates
  • Protons
  • Water