Oral and sublingual immunotherapy for egg allergy

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Nov 18:(11):CD010638. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010638.pub2.


Background: Clinical egg allergy is a common food allergy. Current management relies upon strict allergen avoidance. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) might be an optional treatment, through desensitization to egg allergen.

Objectives: We aimed to assess the successful desensitization and development of tolerance to egg protein and the safety of egg oral and sublingual immunotherapy in children and adults with immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated egg allergy as compared to a placebo treatment or an avoidance strategy.

Search methods: We searched 13 databases for journal articles, conference proceedings, theses and unpublished trials using a combination of subject headings and text words (the last search was on 5 December 2013).

Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. All age groups with clinical egg allergy were to be included.

Data collection and analysis: We retrieved 83 studies from the electronic searches. We selected studies, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality. We attempted to contact the study investigators to obtain the unpublished data, wherever possible. We used the I² statistic to assess statistical heterogeneity. We estimated a pooled risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for each outcome using a Mantel-Haenzel fixed-effect model if statistical heterogeneity was low (I² value less than 50%).

Main results: We included four RCTs with a total of 167 recruited individuals (OIT 100; control 67 participants), all of whom were children (aged four to 15 years). One study used a placebo and three studies used an avoidance diet as the control. Each study used a different OIT protocol. Thirty nine per cent of OIT participants were able to tolerate a full serving of egg compared to 11.9% of the controls (RR 3.39, 95% CI 1.74 to 6.62). Forty per cent of OIT participants could ingest a partial serving of egg (1 g to 7.5 g; RR 5.73, 95% CI 3.13 to 10.50). Sixty nine per cent of the participants presented with mild-to-severe adverse effects (AEs) during OIT (RR 6.06, 95% CI 3.11 to 11.83). Five of the 100 participants receiving OIT required epinephrine. We cannot comment on whether over- or under-reporting of AEs was a concern based on the available data. Overall there was inconsistent methodological rigour in the trials.

Authors' conclusions: The studies were small and the quality of evidence was low. Current evidence suggests that OIT can desensitize a large number of egg-allergic patients, although it remains unknown whether long-term tolerance develops. A major difficulty of OIT is the frequency of AEs, though these are usually mild and self-limiting. The use of epinephrine while on OIT seems infrequent. There are no standardized protocols for OIT and guidelines would be required prior to incorporating desensitization into clinical practice.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Desensitization, Immunologic / adverse effects
  • Desensitization, Immunologic / methods*
  • Egg Hypersensitivity / therapy*
  • Egg Proteins, Dietary / administration & dosage*
  • Egg Proteins, Dietary / immunology
  • Epinephrine / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin E / immunology
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Sublingual Immunotherapy / adverse effects
  • Sublingual Immunotherapy / methods


  • Egg Proteins, Dietary
  • Immunoglobulin E
  • Epinephrine