RNA-binding motif protein, X-linked (RBMX) is a 43 kDa nuclear protein in the RBM family and functions on alternative splicing of RNA. The gene encoding RBMX is located on chromosome Xq26. To investigate whether RBMX is involved in retinal neuron apoptosis, we performed a light-induced retinal damage model in adult rats. Western blotting analysis showed RBMX gradually increased, reached a peak at 12 h and then declined during the following days. The association of RBMX in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) with light exposure was found by immunofluorescence staining. The injury-induced expression of RBMX was detected in active caspase-3 and TUNEL positive cells. We also examined the expression profiles of active caspase-3, bcl-2 and Bax, whose changes were correlated with the expression profiles of RBMX. To summarize, we uncovered the dynamic changes of RBMX in the light-induced retinal damage model for the first time. RBMX might play a significant role in the degenerative process of RGCs after light-induced damage in the retina.