Prostate cancer risk prediction based on complete prostate cancer family history

Prostate. 2015 Mar 1;75(4):390-8. doi: 10.1002/pros.22925. Epub 2014 Nov 18.


Background: Prostate cancer (PC) relative risks (RRs) are typically estimated based on status of close relatives or presence of any affected relatives. This study provides RR estimates using extensive and specific PC family history.

Methods: A retrospective population-based study was undertaken to estimate RRs for PC based on complete family history of PC. A total of 635,443 males, all with ancestral genealogy data, were analyzed. RRs for PC were determined based upon PC rates estimated from males with no PC family history (without PC in first, second, or third degree relatives). RRs were determined for a variety of constellations, for example, number of first through third degree relatives; named (grandfather, father, uncle, cousins, brothers); maternal, paternal relationships, and age of onset.

Results: In the 635,443 males analyzed, 18,105 had PC. First-degree RRs ranged from 2.46 (=1 first-degree relative affected, CI = 2.39-2.53) to 7.65 (=4 first-degree relatives affected, CI = 6.28-9.23). Second-degree RRs for probands with 0 affected first-degree relatives ranged from 1.51 (≥1 second-degree relative affected, CI = 1.47-1.56) to 3.09 (≥5 second-degree relatives affected, CI = 2.32-4.03). Third-degree RRs with 0 affected first- and 0 affected second-degree relatives ranged from 1.15 (≥1 affected third-degree relative, CI = 1.12-1.19) to 1.50 (≥5 affected third-degree relatives, CI = 1.35-1.66). RRs based on age at diagnosis were higher for earlier age at diagnoses; for example, RR = 5.54 for ≥1 first-degree relative diagnosed before age 50 years (CI = 1.12-1.19) and RR = 1.78 for >1 second-degree relative diagnosed before age 50 years, CI = 1.33, 2.33. RRs for equivalent maternal versus paternal family history were not significantly different.

Conclusions: A more complete PC family history using close and distant relatives and age at diagnosis results in a wider range of estimates of individual RR that are potentially more accurate than RRs estimated from summary family history. The presence of PC in second- and even third-degree relatives contributes significantly to risk. Maternal family history is just as significant as paternal family history. PC RRs based on a proband's complete constellation of affected relatives will allow patients and care providers to make more informed screening, monitoring, and treatment decisions.

Keywords: UPDB; cancer; familiality of cancer; genealogy; prostate cancer.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Family
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pedigree
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Registries
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk*