Maternal influenza immunization and birth outcomes of stillbirth and spontaneous abortion: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Mar 1;60(5):e11-9. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu915. Epub 2014 Nov 18.


Despite strong evidence that maternal influenza vaccination during pregnancy is safe, uptake of influenza vaccination during pregnancy remains low. We identified studies that assessed outcomes of stillbirth or spontaneous abortion after administration of influenza vaccine during pregnancy. We conducted a literature search in November 2013 that yielded 447 total citations. After removal of duplicates and studies deemed not relevant based on the title and abstract, 36 records underwent a full text review and 7 studies were included in the final review. Where possible, adjusted results were included in the meta-analysis. Women in the influenza vaccine group had a lower likelihood of stillbirth (relative risk [RR], 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], .55-.96); this association was similar when restricted to the H1N1pdm09 vaccine (RR, 0.69; 95% CI, .53-.90). The pooled estimate for spontaneous abortion was not significant (RR, 0.91; 95% CI, .68-1.22). These analyses add to the evidence base for the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy.

Keywords: influenza vaccine; pregnancy; spontaneous abortion; stillbirth.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Abortion, Spontaneous / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Influenza Vaccines / adverse effects*
  • Influenza, Human / prevention & control*
  • Pregnancy
  • Stillbirth / epidemiology*
  • Vaccination / adverse effects*
  • Vaccination / methods
  • Vaccination / statistics & numerical data


  • Influenza Vaccines