A comparative encyclopedia of DNA elements in the mouse genome

Nature. 2014 Nov 20;515(7527):355-64. doi: 10.1038/nature13992.


The laboratory mouse shares the majority of its protein-coding genes with humans, making it the premier model organism in biomedical research, yet the two mammals differ in significant ways. To gain greater insights into both shared and species-specific transcriptional and cellular regulatory programs in the mouse, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium has mapped transcription, DNase I hypersensitivity, transcription factor binding, chromatin modifications and replication domains throughout the mouse genome in diverse cell and tissue types. By comparing with the human genome, we not only confirm substantial conservation in the newly annotated potential functional sequences, but also find a large degree of divergence of sequences involved in transcriptional regulation, chromatin state and higher order chromatin organization. Our results illuminate the wide range of evolutionary forces acting on genes and their regulatory regions, and provide a general resource for research into mammalian biology and mechanisms of human diseases.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Lineage / genetics
  • Chromatin / genetics
  • Chromatin / metabolism
  • Conserved Sequence / genetics
  • DNA Replication / genetics
  • Deoxyribonuclease I / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation / genetics
  • Gene Regulatory Networks / genetics
  • Genome / genetics*
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Genomics*
  • Humans
  • Mice / genetics*
  • Molecular Sequence Annotation*
  • RNA / genetics
  • Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid / genetics
  • Species Specificity
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Transcriptome / genetics


  • Chromatin
  • Transcription Factors
  • RNA
  • Deoxyribonuclease I

Grants and funding