RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) pausing/termination shortly after initiation is a hallmark of gene regulation. Here, we show that negative elongation factor (NELF) interacts with Integrator complex subunits (INTScom), RNAPII and Spt5. The interaction between NELF and INTScom subunits is RNA and DNA independent. Using both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 promoter and genome-wide analyses, we demonstrate that Integrator subunits specifically control NELF-mediated RNAPII pause/release at coding genes. The strength of RNAPII pausing is determined by the nature of the NELF-associated INTScom subunits. Interestingly, in addition to controlling RNAPII pause-release INTS11 catalytic subunit of the INTScom is required for RNAPII processivity. Finally, INTScom target genes are enriched in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transactivation response element/NELF binding element and in a 3' box sequence required for small nuclear RNA biogenesis. Revealing these unexpected functions of INTScom in regulating RNAPII pause-release and completion of mRNA synthesis of NELF-target genes will contribute to our understanding of the gene expression cycle.