Aims: To assess the prognostic value of myocardial pre-contrast T1 and extracellular volume (ECV) in systemic amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) T1 mapping.
Methods and results: One hundred patients underwent CMR and T1 mapping pre- and post-contrast. Myocardial ECV was calculated at contrast equilibrium (ECV(i)) and 15 min post-bolus (ECVb). Fifty-four healthy volunteers served as controls. Patients were followed up for a median duration of 23 months and survival analyses were performed. Mean ECV(i) was raised in amyloid (0.44 ± 0.12) as was ECV(b) (mean 0.44 ± 0.12) compared with healthy volunteers (0.25 ± 0.02), P < 0.001. Native pre-contrast T1 was raised in amyloid (mean 1080 ± 87 ms vs. 954 ± 34 ms, P < 0.001). All three correlated with pre-test probability of cardiac involvement, cardiac biomarkers, and systolic and diastolic dysfunction. During follow-up, 25 deaths occurred. An ECV(i) of >0.45 carried a hazard ratio (HR) for death of 3.84 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.53-9.61], P = 0.004 and pre-contrast T1 of >1044 ms = HR 5.39 (95% CI: 1.24-23.4), P = 0.02. Extracellular volume after primed infusion and ECVb performed similarly. Isolated post-contrast T1 was non-predictive. In Cox regression models, ECV(i) was independently predictive of mortality (HR = 4.41, 95% CI: 1.35-14.4) after adjusting for E:E', ejection fraction, diastolic dysfunction grade, and NT-proBNP.
Conclusion: Myocardial ECV (bolus or infusion technique) and pre-contrast T1 are biomarkers for cardiac AL amyloid and they predict mortality in systemic amyloidosis.
Keywords: Amyloid; CMR; Cardiomyopathy; ECV; Heart failure; T1 mapping.
© The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.