Lack of association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and cervical human papillomavirus infection in systemic lupus erythematosus

Lupus. 2015 May;24(6):606-12. doi: 10.1177/0961203314559628. Epub 2014 Nov 18.


Our objective was to evaluate whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with cervical human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in women with SLE. This is a cross-sectional study of 67 women with SLE. A structured questionnaire was administered to ascertain the possible risk factors associated with cervical HPV infection. A gynaecological evaluation and cervical cytology screening were made. HPV detection and genotyping was made by PCR and linear array assay. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels were quantified by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Mean age and disease duration were 44.8 ± 10.6 and 42.5 ± 11.8 years, respectively. Demographic characteristics were similar in patients with and without deficiency (<20 ng/ml and ≥20 ng/ml). There were 28.4% of women with cervical HPV infection and 68.4% had high-risk HPV infections. Patients with 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels <20 ng/ml had a higher prevalence of cervical HPV infection than those with levels ≥20 ng/ml (30.7% vs. 25.8%; p = 0.72). We found no significant difference when high-risk HPV infection was evaluated (36.8% vs. 31.5%; p = 0.73). In conclusion, women with SLE have a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and cervical HPV infection. However, we found no association between vitamin D deficiency and cervical HPV.

Keywords: Cervical human papillomavirus infection; systemic lupus erythematosus; vitamin D.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Immunoassay / methods
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / blood*
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / virology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Papillomavirus Infections / blood*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Uterine Cervical Diseases / blood*
  • Uterine Cervical Diseases / virology*
  • Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / blood
  • Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / virology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / blood
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology
  • Vaginal Smears / methods
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives*
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / virology


  • Vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D