Effect of Diabetes Mellitus on Perioperative Complications and Hospital Outcomes After Ankle Arthrodesis and Total Ankle Arthroplasty

Foot Ankle Int. 2015 Mar;36(3):258-67. doi: 10.1177/1071100714555569. Epub 2014 Nov 20.

Abstract

Background: The aim of this investigation was to analyze a nationally representative admissions database to evaluate the effect of diabetes mellitus on the rate of perioperative complications and hospitalization outcomes after ankle arthrodesis (AAD) and total ankle arthroplasty (TAA).

Methods: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, 12 122 patients who underwent AAD and 2973 patients who underwent TAA were identified from 2002 to 2011 based on ICD-9 procedure codes. The perioperative complications and hospitalization outcomes were compared between diabetic and nondiabetic patients for each surgery during the index hospital stay.

Results: The overall complication rate in the AAD group was 16.4% in diabetic patients and 7.0% in nondiabetic patients (P < .001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that diabetes mellitus was independently associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction (relative risk [RR] = 3.2, P = .008), urinary tract infection (RR = 4.6, P < .001), blood transfusion (RR = 3.0, P < .001), irrigation and debridement (RR = 1.9, P = .001), and overall complication rate (RR = 2.7, P < .001). Diabetes was also independently associated with a statistically significant increase in length of hospital stay (difference = 0.35 days, P < .001), more frequent nonhome discharge (RR = 1.69, P < .001), and higher hospitalization charges (difference = $1908, P = .04). The overall complication rate in the TAA group was 7.8% in diabetic patients and 4.7% in nondiabetic patients. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that diabetes was independently associated with increased risk of blood transfusion (RR = 9.8, P = .03) and overall complication rate (RR = 4.1, P = .02). Diabetes was also independently associated with a statistically significant increase in length of stay (difference = 0.41 days, P < .001) and more frequent nonhome discharge (RR = 1.88, P < .001), but there was no significant difference in hospitalization charges (P = .64).

Conclusion: After both AAD and TAA, diabetes mellitus was independently associated with a significantly increased risk of perioperative complications, nonhome discharge, and length of hospital stay during the index hospitalization.

Keywords: ankle arthritis; ankle arthrodesis; ankle arthroplasty; diabetes mellitus; hospitalization outcomes; perioperative complications.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Ankle Joint / surgery*
  • Arthrodesis*
  • Arthroplasty, Replacement, Ankle*
  • Diabetes Complications / complications*
  • Female
  • Hospitalization / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Perioperative Period
  • Postoperative Complications*
  • Retrospective Studies