The Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene has been localized to chromosome Xp21 and codes for a 14-kilobase (kb) transcript and a protein called dystrophin, of relative molecular mass 427,000. Dystrophin is associated with the cytoplasmic face of muscle fibre membranes and its C-terminal domain is thought to mediate membrane attachment. Although N-terminal and central domain structures share common features with other cytoskeletal components, no significant sequence similarity between the C-terminal region of dystrophin and other previously characterized proteins has been described. Here we report that fragments from the C-terminal domain of the DMD complementary DNA detect a closely related sequence which exhibits nucleic-acid and predicted amino-acid identities with dystrophin of approximately 65 and 80%, respectively. The dystrophin-related sequence identifies a 13-kb transcript in human fetal muscle and maps to chromosome 6. Thus, dystrophin may be a member of a family of functionally related large structural proteins in muscle.