Phototherapy is an electrophysical intervention being considered for the retardation of peripheral muscular fatigue usually observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of combination of super-pulsed laser and light-emitting diodes phototherapy on isokinetic performance in patients with COPD. Thirteen patients performed muscular endurance tests in an isokinetic dynamometer. The maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), peak torque (PT), and total work (TW) of the non-dominant lower limb were measured in two visits. The application of phototherapy or placebo (PL) was conducted randomly in six locations of femoral quadriceps muscle by using a cluster of 12 diodes (4 of 905 nm super-pulsed lasers, 0.3125 mW each; 4 of 875 nm LEDs, 17.5 mW each; and 4 of 640 nm LEDs, 15 mW each, manufactured by Multi Radiance Medical™). We found statistically significant increases for PT (174.7 ± 35.7 N · m vs. 155.8 ± 23.3 N · m, p = 0.003) and TW after application of phototherapy when compared to placebo (778.0 ± 221.1 J vs. 696.3 ± 146.8 J, p = 0.005). Significant differences were also found for MVIC (104.8 ± 26.0 N · m vs. 87.2 ± 24.0 N · m, p = 0.000), sensation of dyspnea (1 [0-4] vs. 3 [0-6], p = 0.003), and fatigue in the lower limbs (2 [0-5] vs. 5 [0.5-9], p = 0.002) in favor of phototherapy. We conclude that the combination of super-pulsed lasers and LEDs administered to the femoral quadriceps muscle of patients with COPD increased the PT by 20.2% and the TW by 12%. Phototherapy with a combination of super-pulsed lasers and LEDs prior to exercise also led to decreased sensation of dyspnea and fatigue in the lower limbs in patients with COPD.