Contemporary antithrombotic strategies in patients with acute coronary syndrome admitted to cardiac care units in Italy: The EYESHOT Study

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care. 2015 Oct;4(5):441-52. doi: 10.1177/2048872614560505. Epub 2014 Nov 20.


Background: Several new antithrombotic therapies have emerged for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We sought to assess contemporary patterns of antithrombotic therapies use in patients with ACS.

Methods and results: EYESHOT (EmploYEd antithrombotic therapies in patients with acute coronary Syndromes HOspitalized in iTalian cardiac care units) was a nationwide, prospective registry aimed to evaluate antithrombotic strategies employed in patients admitted to intensive cardiac care units (CCUs) for an ACS in Italy. Over a three-week period, 203 CCUs enrolled 2585 consecutive patients: 41.2% with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 58.8% with non-ST elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS). During hospitalisation, low-molecular-weight heparins, aspirin, and clopidogrel were the most commonly used antithrombotic therapies. Among patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, n=1755), any crossover of heparin therapy occurred in 30.8% of cases, while switching from one P2Y12 inhibitor to another occurred in 3.6% of cases in the CathLab and in 14.2% before discharge. Of the 790 patients who did not receive revascularisation, switching of a P2Y12 inhibitor occurred in 5.7% of cases. At discharge, a new P2Y12 inhibitor (ticagrelor or prasugrel) in association with aspirin was prescribed in 59.5% of STEMI and 33.9% of NSTE-ACS patients: the most powerful predictor for prescription was PCI (odds ratio (OR) 6.18; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.76-8.01; p<0.0001), whereas age ≥ 75 years was strongly associated with clopidogrel use (OR 0.28; 95% CI 0.22-0.36; p<0.0001).

Conclusions: The EYESHOT registry shows the current pattern of antithrombotic treatments for ACS patients admitted to Italian CCUs and provides insights which may help to improve the clinical care of such patients.

Keywords: Acute coronary syndrome; antithrombotic therapy; bivalirudin; heparins; prasugrel; ticagrelor.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute Coronary Syndrome / drug therapy*
  • Acute Coronary Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Acute Coronary Syndrome / surgery
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antithrombins / administration & dosage
  • Antithrombins / therapeutic use
  • Comorbidity
  • Coronary Angiography
  • Coronary Care Units
  • Female
  • Fibrinolytic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Fibrinolytic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Italy / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction / drug therapy*
  • Myocardial Infarction / epidemiology
  • Myocardial Infarction / surgery
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
  • Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors / administration & dosage
  • Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Prospective Studies
  • Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists / administration & dosage
  • Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Registries
  • Risk Factors


  • Antithrombins
  • Fibrinolytic Agents
  • Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors
  • Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists