Allele frequency net 2015 update: new features for HLA epitopes, KIR and disease and HLA adverse drug reaction associations

Nucleic Acids Res. 2015 Jan;43(Database issue):D784-8. doi: 10.1093/nar/gku1166. Epub 2014 Nov 20.


It has been 12 years since the Allele Frequency Net Database (AFND; was first launched, providing the scientific community with an online repository for the storage of immune gene frequencies in different populations across the world. There have been a significant number of improvements from the first version, making AFND a primary resource for many clinical and scientific areas including histocompatibility, immunogenetics, pharmacogenetics and anthropology studies, among many others. The most widely used part of AFND stores population frequency data (alleles, genes or haplotypes) related to human leukocyte antigens (HLA), killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR), major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related genes (MIC) and a number of cytokine gene polymorphisms. AFND now contains >1400 populations from more than 10 million healthy individuals. Here, we report how the main features of AFND have been updated to include a new section on 'HLA epitope' frequencies in populations, a new section capturing the results of studies identifying HLA associations with adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and one for the examination of infectious and autoimmune diseases associated with KIR polymorphisms-thus extending AFND to serve a new user base in these growing areas of research. New criteria on data quality have also been included.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Databases, Genetic*
  • Disease / genetics
  • Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions / genetics
  • Epitopes / genetics*
  • Gene Frequency*
  • HLA Antigens / genetics*
  • HLA Antigens / immunology
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / genetics
  • Humans
  • Internet
  • Receptors, KIR / genetics*


  • Epitopes
  • HLA Antigens
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class I
  • Receptors, KIR