Background: There are recognized needs to identify determinants of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE), including the effect of repeated annual vaccination.
Methods: We recruited 321 households with 1426 members, including 833 children, and followed them during the 2012-2013 influenza season; specimens were collected from subjects with reported acute respiratory illnesses. We estimated the effectiveness of documented influenza vaccination in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza, using adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Antibody titers in a subset of subjects were determined by a hemagglutination inhibition assay to determine the subjects' preseason susceptibility to influenza.
Results: Influenza was identified in 76 (24%) households and 111 (8%) individuals. VE point estimates indicated significant protection in adults (48%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1%-72%), similar protection in children aged 9-17 years (49%; 95% CI, -16% to 78%), but no evidence of effectiveness in children aged <9 years (-4%; 95% CI, -110% to 49%). Lower VE was observed in those vaccinated in both the current and prior seasons, compared with those vaccinated in the current season only; susceptibility titers against type A but not type B were consistent with this observation. Residual protection from vaccination in the prior season was indicated by both VE and serologic results.
Conclusions: Prior vaccination appears to modify VE by both residual protection and reduced vaccine response.
Keywords: households with children; influenza; serologic susceptibility; vaccine effectiveness.
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