Objective: The association of HLA-B27 with spondyloarthropathy is one of the strongest documented for any autoimmune disease. A common hypothesis for this association is the arthritogenic peptide concept. This dictates that differences in the peptide binding preferences of disease-associated and non-disease-associated HLA-B27 allotypes underlie the presentation of bacterial and self-peptides, leading to cross-reactive T cell immunity and subsequent autoimmune attack of affected tissues. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare self-peptides from 8 HLA-B27 allotypes, to increase existing data sets of HLA-B27 ligands, to refine and compare their consensus-binding motifs, and to reveal similarities and differences in the peptide repertoire of the HLA-B27 subtypes.
Methods: Qualitative differences in the peptides bound to the 8 most frequent HLA-B27 subtypes were determined by tandem mass spectrometry, and quantitative changes in allelic binding specificities were determined by highly sensitive and targeted multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry.
Results: We identified >7,500 major histocompatibility complex class I peptides derived from the 8 most common HLA-B27 allotypes (HLA-B*27:02 to HLA-B*27:09). We describe individual binding motifs for these alleles for the 9-12-mer ligands. The peptide repertoires of these closely related alleles showed significant overlap. Allelic polymorphisms resulting in changes in the amino acid composition of the antigen-binding cleft manifested largely as quantitative changes in the peptide cargo of these molecules.
Conclusion: Absolute binding preferences of HLA-B27 allotypes do not explain disease association. The arthritogenic peptide theory needs to be reassessed in terms of quantitative changes in self-peptide presentation, T cell selection, and altered conformation of bound peptides.
Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.