Aims: To compare the pharmacodynamic effects of the highest approved doses of the sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors canagliflozin and dapagliflozin on urinary glucose excretion (UGE), renal threshold for glucose excretion (RTG ) and postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) excursion in healthy participants in a randomized, double-blind, two-period crossover study.
Methods: In each treatment period, participants (n = 54) received canagliflozin 300 mg or dapagliflozin 10 mg for 4 days (20 min before breakfast). A mixed-meal tolerance test (600 kcal; 75 g glucose) was performed at baseline and on day 4 of each treatment period to assess changes in incremental PPG (PPGΔAUC0-2 h ). We measured 24-h UGE and plasma glucose on day 4 to determine 24-h mean RTG .
Results: Canagliflozin 300 mg and dapagliflozin 10 mg had similar effects on UGE and RTG for 4 h after dosing, but canagliflozin was associated with higher UGE and greater RTG reductions for the remainder of the day. Mean 24-h UGE was ∼25% higher with canagliflozin than with dapagliflozin (51.4 vs. 40.8 g), and 24-h mean RTG was ∼0.4 mmol/l (7 mg/dl) lower with canagliflozin than with dapagliflozin (3.79 vs. 4.17 mmol/l; p < 0.0001). Dapagliflozin had no effect on PPG excursion; canagliflozin delayed and reduced PPG excursion (between-treatment difference in PPGΔAUC0-2 h from baseline expressed as a percentage of baseline mean, -10.2%; p = 0.0122). Canagliflozin and dapagliflozin were generally well tolerated.
Conclusions: In healthy participants, canagliflozin 300 mg provided greater 24-h UGE, a lower RTG and smaller PPG excursions than dapagliflozin 10 mg.
Keywords: SGLT2 inhibitor; canagliflozin; dapagliflozin; pharmacodynamics; phase I-II study; type 2 diabetes.
© 2014 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd.