Abuse-deterrent formulations: part 2: commercial products and proprietary technologies

Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2015 Feb;16(3):305-23. doi: 10.1517/14656566.2014.970175. Epub 2014 Nov 25.


Introduction: Increased misuse and abuse of prescription pain medications has driven extensive research and development to produce what are best known as abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs). The ADFs are intended to prevent, impede or discourage physical and chemical tampering while still being able to provide safe and accurate delivery of an abusable medication for therapeutic benefit.

Areas covered: This review primarily focuses on patents and company literature regarding the formulations, manufacturing and physiochemical properties of abuse-deterrent compositions. Also included are journal articles with relevance to the development of these novel technologies. Particular attention is given to oral dosage forms with applications found in prescription drug products, over-the-counter medications and proprietary technologies in development. Overall, the formulations of 14 drug products, 2 meth-resistant cold products and 17 pharmaceutical proprietary technologies are explored in detail.

Expert opinion: Despite the introduction of a wide range of formulation and technology interventions with different deterrence potential, the progression of these technologies seems to be moving from inhibiting only one type of abuse to stopping multiple types of tampering methods. Information on inherent strengths and weaknesses of various formulations can be utilized in the development of more robust and resistant ADF in the future.

Keywords: abuse deterrent; misuse; nonmedical use; opioids; prescription drug abuse; tamper resistant.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Analgesics, Opioid / administration & dosage*
  • Analgesics, Opioid / adverse effects
  • Chemistry, Pharmaceutical
  • Dosage Forms
  • Humans
  • Opioid-Related Disorders / etiology
  • Opioid-Related Disorders / prevention & control*
  • Pain / drug therapy*
  • Prescription Drugs


  • Analgesics, Opioid
  • Dosage Forms
  • Prescription Drugs