Pilot cluster randomized controlled trials to evaluate adoption of water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions and their combination in rural western Kenya

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Feb;92(2):437-47. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0138. Epub 2014 Nov 24.


In preparation for a larger trial, the Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Benefits pilot study enrolled 72 villages and 499 subjects in two closely related randomized trials of WASH interventions in rural western Kenya. Intervention households received hardware and promotion for one of the following: water treatment, sanitation and latrine improvements, handwashing with soap, or the combination of all three. Interventions were clustered by village. A follow-up survey was conducted 4 months after intervention delivery to assess uptake. Intervention households were significantly more likely than controls to have chlorinated stored water (36-60 percentage point increases), covers over latrine drop holes (55-75 percentage point increases), less stool visible on latrine floors (16-47 percentage point reductions), and a place for handwashing (71-85 percentage point increases) with soap available (49-66 percentage point increases). The high uptake in all arms shows that combined interventions can achieve high short-term adoption rates if well-designed.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Child, Preschool
  • Communicable Disease Control / methods
  • Communicable Disease Control / standards
  • Diarrhea / epidemiology
  • Diarrhea / prevention & control
  • Diarrhea, Infantile / epidemiology
  • Diarrhea, Infantile / prevention & control
  • Family Characteristics
  • Hand Disinfection / methods
  • Hand Disinfection / standards
  • Health Promotion / methods*
  • Humans
  • Hygiene* / standards
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Kenya / epidemiology
  • Pilot Projects
  • Sanitation / methods*
  • Sanitation / standards
  • Toilet Facilities / standards
  • Water Purification / instrumentation
  • Water Purification / methods*
  • Water Purification / standards