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. 2014 Nov;26(4 Pt 2):1445-60.
doi: 10.1017/S0954579414001138.

Parental Depression and Child Cognitive Vulnerability Predict Children's Cortisol Reactivity

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Free PMC article

Parental Depression and Child Cognitive Vulnerability Predict Children's Cortisol Reactivity

Elizabeth P Hayden et al. Dev Psychopathol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Risk for depression is expressed across multiple levels of analysis. For example, parental depression and cognitive vulnerability are known markers of depression risk, but no study has examined their interactive effects on children's cortisol reactivity, a likely mediator of early depression risk. We examined relations across these different levels of vulnerability using cross-sectional and longitudinal methods in two community samples of children. Children were assessed for cognitive vulnerability using self-reports (Study 1; n = 244) and tasks tapping memory and attentional bias (Study 2; n = 205), and their parents were assessed for depression history using structured clinical interviews. In both samples, children participated in standardized stress tasks and cortisol reactivity was assessed. Cross-sectionally and longitudinally, parental depression history and child cognitive vulnerability interacted to predict children's cortisol reactivity; associations between parent depression and elevated child cortisol activity were found when children also showed elevated depressotypic attributions as well as attentional and memory biases. Findings indicate that models of children's emerging depression risk may benefit from the examination of the interactive effects of multiple sources of vulnerability across levels of analysis.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Interaction between caregiver depression history and child CCSQ predicting AUCg Note: CCSQ-Child Cognitive Style Questionnaire; MDD-Major Depressive Disorder for child’s caregiver (mother or father); AUCg-Area under the curve-ground.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Interaction between maternal depression history and child SRET-N predicting AUCi Note: MDD-maternal depressive disorder; AUCi-Area under the curve-increase; SRET-N- Self-referent encoding task negative processing.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Interaction between paternal depression history and child SRET-P predicting AUCg Note: SRET-P – Self-referent encoding task positive processing; PDD-paternal depressive disorder; AUCg-Area under the curve-ground.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Interaction between paternal depression history and child SRET-N predicting AUCg Note: SRET-N- Self-referent encoding task negative processing; PDD-paternal depressive disorder; AUCg-Area under the curve-ground.
Figure 5
Figure 5
The interaction between paternal depression history and child DP-TB predicting AUCg Note: DP-THR-dot-probe threat bias; PDD-paternal depressive disorder; AUCg-Area under the curve-ground.

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