The molecular physiology of uric acid homeostasis

Annu Rev Physiol. 2015;77:323-45. doi: 10.1146/annurev-physiol-021113-170343. Epub 2014 Nov 12.


Uric acid, generated from the metabolism of purines, has proven and emerging roles in human disease. Serum uric acid is determined by production and the net balance of reabsorption or secretion by the kidney and intestine. A detailed understanding of epithelial absorption and secretion of uric acid has recently emerged, aided in particular by the results of genome-wide association studies of hyperuricemia. Novel genetic and regulatory networks with effects on uric acid homeostasis have also emerged. These developments promise to lead to a new understanding of the various diseases associated with hyperuricemia and to novel, targeted therapies for hyperuricemia.

Keywords: ABCG2; SLC2A9; URAT1; hyperuricemia; uric acid.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Homeostasis / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Hyperuricemia / genetics
  • Hyperuricemia / metabolism
  • Hyperuricemia / physiopathology
  • Molecular Biology*
  • Organic Anion Transporters / physiology
  • Signal Transduction / physiology
  • Uric Acid / metabolism*


  • Organic Anion Transporters
  • urate transporter
  • Uric Acid