Insect-specific production of new GameXPeptides in photorhabdus luminescens TTO1, widespread natural products in entomopathogenic bacteria

Chembiochem. 2015 Jan 19;16(2):205-8. doi: 10.1002/cbic.201402603. Epub 2014 Nov 25.


Discovery of new natural products by heterologous expression reaches its limits, especially when specific building blocks are missing in the heterologous host or the production medium. Here, we describe the insect-specific production of the new GameXPeptides E-H (5-8) from Photorhabdus luminescens TTO1, which can be produced heterologously from expression of the GameXPeptide synthetase GxpS only upon supplementation of the production media with the missing building blocks, and thus must be regarded as the true natural products under natural conditions.

Keywords: Photorhabdus; aminophenylalanine; environment-specific natural products; nonribosomal peptides.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacterial Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Bacterial Proteins / chemistry
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Larva / microbiology
  • Moths / microbiology*
  • Multigene Family
  • Mutation
  • Peptide Synthases / genetics
  • Peptide Synthases / metabolism
  • Peptides / chemistry*
  • Peptides / metabolism
  • Photorhabdus / chemistry
  • Photorhabdus / genetics*
  • Photorhabdus / metabolism*
  • Protein Engineering / methods
  • Secondary Metabolism


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Peptides
  • Peptide Synthases