Purpose of review: Cytochrome (CYP) P450 metabolites of arachidonic acid, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) contribute to the regulation of renal tubular and vascular function. This review highlights the results of the recent genetic studies in humans and rodent models, indicating that these eicosanoids participate in the control of blood pressure (BP), chronic kidney disease (CKD), renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and polycystic kidney disease (PKD).
Recent findings: Endogenous 20-HETE has been reported to play an essential role in the myogenic and tubuloglomerular feedback responses in the afferent arteriole, and a deficiency of 20-HETE contributes to the development of hypertension and renal injury in Dahl S rats. Mutations in CYP4A11 and CYP4F2 have been linked to elevated BP in humans. EETs have been shown to regulate epithelial sodium channel in the collecting duct, lower BP and have renoprotective properties. 20-HETE also opposes the development of CKD and IRI, and may play a role in PKD.
Summary: These studies indicate that CYP P450 metabolites of arachidonic acid play an important role in the control of BP, CKD, AKI and PKD. Drugs targeting these pathways could be useful in the treatment of IRI and CKD.