The incidence of diabetes mellitus is rising worldwide. The aim of this prospective epidemiological study was to compare the effects of natural and surgical menopause on parameters of glucose metabolism. In a group of 587 repeatedly examined women, with a baseline age of 45-55 years, the following subgroups of women were separated: those after bilateral oophorectomy (BO, n=37) and those in natural menopause (NAT, n=380) including women menopausal already at baseline (POST, n=89). The study parameters including glycemia, insulinemia, HOMA-IR and beta-cell function using HOMA-beta were determined at baseline and 6 years later. Over the study period, there was a marked rise in prediabetic and diabetic values of fasting glycemia; the percentage of women with diabetic values increased in the NAT (from 0.8 % to 3.9 %) and POST (from 2.2 % to 9.0 %) subgroups, with the highest prevalence in the BO subgroup (from 8.1 % to 10.8 %). While, among women with non-diabetic fasting glycemia, an increase in fasting glycemia was observed in all study subgroups, it was more marked in the BO subgroup than in the NAT and POST ones (p=0.02 both). This difference between NAT and BO was also found in the long-term trend of development of glycemia in non-diabetic women (p=0.014). Compared with natural menopause, bilateral oophorectomy may have an adverse effect on glucose metabolism.