Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Review
, 224 (2), R79-95

Metabolic and Endocrine Response to Exercise: Sympathoadrenal Integration With Skeletal Muscle

Affiliations
Review

Metabolic and Endocrine Response to Exercise: Sympathoadrenal Integration With Skeletal Muscle

Derek Ball. J Endocrinol.

Abstract

Skeletal muscle has the capacity to increase energy turnover by ∼1000 times its resting rate when contracting at the maximum force/power output. Since ATP is not stored in any appreciable quantity, the muscle requires a coordinated metabolic response to maintain an adequate supply of ATP to sustain contractile activity. The integration of intracellular metabolic pathways is dependent upon the cross-bridge cycling rate of myosin and actin, substrate availability and the accumulation of metabolic byproducts, all of which can influence the maintenance of contractile activity or result in the onset of fatigue. In addition, the mobilisation of extracellular substrates is dependent upon the integration of both the autonomic nervous system and endocrine systems to coordinate an increase in both carbohydrate and fat availability. The current review examines the evidence for skeletal muscle to generate power over short and long durations and discusses the metabolic response to sustain these processes. The review also considers the endocrine response from the perspective of the sympathoadrenal system to integrate extracellular substrate availability with the increased energy demands made by contracting skeletal muscle. Finally, the review briefly discusses the evidence that muscle acts in an endocrine manner during exercise and what role this might play in mobilising extracellular substrates to augment the effects of the sympathoadrenal system.

Keywords: cytokine; endocrine; muscle energetics; sympathoadrenal.

Similar articles

  • Role of Myokines in Exercise and Metabolism
    BK Pedersen et al. J Appl Physiol (1985) 103 (3), 1093-8. PMID 17347387. - Review
    During the past 20 yr, it has been well documented that exercise has a profound effect on the immune system. With the discovery that exercise provokes an increase in a nu …
  • Effects of Energy Restriction and Exercise on the Sympathetic Nervous System
    WH Saris. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 19 Suppl 7, S17-S23. PMID 8963366. - Review
    Thermogenesis or facultative heat production is a fundamental process of the human body to respond to overnutrition and undernutrition in an attempt to maintain a constan …
  • Metabolic Modulation of Sympathetic Vasoconstriction in Exercising Skeletal Muscle
    J Hansen et al. Acta Physiol Scand 168 (4), 489-503. PMID 10759586. - Review
    The tight coupling of oxygen supply and utilization in exercising skeletal muscle is the result of complex interactions between local mechanisms that control muscle blood …
  • [Hormonal-metabolic Adaptations to Muscular Exercise]
    AJ Scheen et al. Rev Med Liege 56 (4), 195-9. PMID 11421151. - Review
    Physical exercise induces numerous metabolic and hormonal changes that may be influenced by various factors, among which the intensity and the duration of the exertion se …
  • Muscle Glycogen and Metabolic Regulation
    M Hargreaves. Proc Nutr Soc 63 (2), 217-20. PMID 15294033. - Review
    Muscle glycogen is an important fuel for contracting skeletal muscle during prolonged strenuous exercise, and glycogen depletion has been implicated in muscle fatigue. It …
See all similar articles

Cited by 7 PubMed Central articles

See all "Cited by" articles

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback